Fish Body Oils 3000 mg [EPA† 900 mg and DHA† 600 mg] Fish oils or marine oils are lipids (fats) found in fish, particularly cold water fish like herring, kipper, mackerel, menhaden, pilchard, salmon, sardine and trout, and phytoplankton. The sources of fish oil in Heart Health™ Omega III Fish Oil are sardines and anchovies, tested by the manufacturer and an independant testing company to be virtually free of mercury lead, PCB and other heavy metals. Fish oils are rich sources of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanenoic acid) are the two most studied fish oils. DHA is a necessary component of the phospholipids in human cellular membranes, especially those found in the brain and retina. Clinical studies have shown omega-3 fatty acids to help maintain healthy triglyceride levels. A strong correlation has also been shown between fish oil consumption and the ability to maintain healthy levels of C-reactive protein. Fish oils are also important in the maintenance of normal blood flow, as they support normal fibrinogen levels (coagulation or blood clotting), which contributes to normal platelet activity.*
EPA and DHA have several mechanisms of action to help maintain normal triglyceride and cholesterol levels, help maintain normal blood flow and pressure, and support normal platelet activity. EPA and DHA help maintain normal triglyceride levels by promoting normal lipogenesis and supporting normal fatty acid oxidation in the liver. EPA and DHA promote the normal transcription of genes coding for lipogenesis enzymes and promote the normal transportation of the regulatory enzymes of fatty acid oxidation. Activating PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) - alpha, helps to support normal fatty acid oxidation. The promotion of normal lipogenesis is done through down-regulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element binding protein) -1c messenger RNA.*
EPA is the precursor to series-3 prostaglandins (PG), the series-3 thrombaxanes (TX) and the series-5 leukotrienes (LT). More specifically, EPA is a precursor to eicosanoids (TXA3 and LTB5), which promote normal platelet activity and promote normal vasodilation. These effects demonstrate EPA’s potential ability to help maintain normal blood pressure and support normal blood clotting. Fish oils inhibit the arachidonic acid synthesis of thromboxane A2, which help to promote normal platelet activity and vasodilation. Fish oil may also contribute to the normal production of prostacyclin, a prostaglandin that promotes normal vasodilation and supports normal platelet activity.*
Omega-3 fatty acids compete metabolically with omega-6 fatty acids, found in higher amounts in typical western diets. Omega-6 fatty acids may inhibit the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into tissue lipids. Omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit the conversion of many omega-6 fatty acids into arachidonic acid. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, a corresponding increase of these fatty acids appears to occur in cell membranes and circulatory lipids along with a simulataneous reduction in omega-6 fatty acids.*
Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol) 23 IU The most valuable sources of dietary vitamin E include vegetable oils, margarine, nuts, seeds, avocados and wheat germ. Safflower oil contains large amounts of vitamin E (about two thirds of the RDA in ¼ cup), and there are trace amounts in corn oil and soybean oil. Vitamin E is actually a family of related compounds called tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E is available in a natural or synthetic form. In most cases, the natural and synthetic forms are identical except the natural form of vitamin E is better absorbed and retained in the body. The natural form of alpha-tocopherol is known as "d-alpha tocopherol." The synthetic "dl-" form is the most common form found in dietary supplements. For those individuals watching their dietary fat consumption, which is relatively common in the world of dieting, vitamin E intake is likely to be low, due to a reduced intake of foods with high fat content.
The main health benefit of supplemental vitamin E comes from its immune-boosting antioxidant activity. It supports a healthy cardiovascular system. Vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body. In turn, vitamin E protects cell membranes from free radical. Vitamin E is commonly added to fish oil supplements to provide antioxidant protection of DHA and EPA.*
†According to the FDA, supportive, but not conclusive, research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.