Thiamin (as Benfotiamine) 55 mg
Benfotiamine is a synthetic, lipid-soluble derivative of thiamin. Several human clinical trials have demonstrated the superior absorption and bioavailability of benfotiamine compared to water-soluble thiamin salts. Oral benfotiamine is absorbed into the intestinal wall by passive diffusion and rapidly converted into active thiamin; the net result is a greater concentration of thiamin in blood and tissues. In the body, thiamin promotes normal nutrient metabolism and neuromuscular transmission. By supporting normal thiamin pyrophosphate levels, Benfotiamine has been shown to support healthy transketolase activity. Transketolase helps support the normal formation of methylglyoxal, which helps to maintain a normal level of Advanced Glycation End product (AGE) formation (1). Benfotiamine has also been shown to help maintain healthy levels of AGEs (2).
Chronic hyperglycemia can lead to increased cellular levels of free glucose, and when the body cannot metabolize, or clear glucose efficiently, the excess glucose can bind non-enzymatically to proteins and other molecules, forming AGEs. AGEs can compromise protein structure and function, DNA/RNA structure and function, and can have a negative effect on many aging processes. Human clinical trials have shown benfotiamine supplementation to help promote the normal clearance of AGEs already in the body. Benfotiamine has also been suggested to promote normal glucose levels in retinal and other tissues. Recently, benfotiamine research has demonstrated its effects on supporting normal circulation to the extremities. Dr. Gadau at the National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems in Italy found that benfotiamine can promote endothelium-dependent vasodilation, support normal oxygenation, and help maintain normal ischemia-induced endothelial and skeletal muscle cell apoptosis oxygen flow through the blood vessels to support overall vascular health.(1, 3).
Taurine 1,000 mg
Taurine is a semi-essential sulfuric amino acid found in abundance in the human body. It is considered semi-essential because humans can synthesize up to 80 percent of their total taurine concentration from other sulfur-containing molecules in the body. However, it’s been documented that our natural synthesis of taurine decreases with age, likely due to a decline in biosynthetic enzymes.
Taurine has various biological functions including antioxidant activity. Supplementing with taurine has been shown to help maintain normal and promote normal aging. Studies suggest taurine promotes normal AGE formation. Other benefits of taurine include supporting heart, vision and brain health as we age.
American Ginseng Root Extract (5% ginsenosides) 500 mg
Similar to Panax Ginseng, American Ginseng is a perennial in the ivy family rich in triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. American Ginseng has been used since the 1800s by Native Americans for its numerous health-related and adaptogenic properties. Being an adaptogen, ginseng can help the body maintain proper immune balance under stress and help to combat occasional fatigue. Ginsenosides have been suggested to promote cardiovascular health by supporting normal nitric oxide synthesis and support the immune system by promoting normal natural killer cell activity, B lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production. A study published in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacology found that just 400 mg of American Ginseng extract can help maintain the plasma concentration of phase 2 detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (4). American ginseng may also promote cognitive health by promoting healthy levels of superoxide and glutathione in neurons.
More recent research indicates that ginsenosides may help maintain normal blood glucose levels. Several studies have reported that giving patients American ginseng root prior to a meal helped maintain normal blood sugar levels after the meal. Mechanistic studies suggest this result is a combination of promoting the normal activity of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes glucokinase that break down sugars and phosphofructokinase in the body and supporint the normal activity of the rate-limiting gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase enzymes that synthesize sugar(5). There is also some evidence suggesting American ginseng helps maintain normal pancreatic beta-cell insulin production and secretion.*
Cinnamon Bark Extract 250 mg
Cinnamon bark has a long history of use as a spice and flavoring agent. Ancient literature dates cinnamon usage as early as 2000 BC in Egypt and areas surrounding the Mediterranean. Cinnamon has a wide range of polyphenolic compounds and oils suggested to have beneficial effects in humans. Studies indicate that cinnamon is high in powerful antioxidant properties and can promote digestive health. In a critical review from the Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, investigators determined that cinnamon bark can help maintain fasting blood glucose levels. (6). A recent study in PPAR Research suggests cinnamon helps maintain normal blood glucose levels by helping to maintain normal levels of the transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its target genes including GLUT4 transporters: this promotes the normal transport of circulating glucose into muscle tissue to be used as energy (7). In vitro studies demonstrated cinnamon can help to maintain a normal level of AGE formation. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, scientists believe the phenolic constituents of cinnamon can help maintain normal AGE production. (8). Maintaining the normal production of AGEs may be a critical factor in supporting healthy aging.
N-Acetylcysteine 200 mg
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the sulfur-containing amino acid, cysteine. NAC-Acetylcysteine, along with glutamic acid and glycine promotes the normal conversion of cysteine into glutathione. Glutathione is one of the primary cellular antioxidants and has been touted as the body’s ‘master antioxidant.’ Several studies have demonstrated that oral NAC-Acetylcysteine supplementation helps maintain healthy levels of glutathione in the liver, plasma and in the bronchioles of the lungs. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest NAC-Acetylcysteine has other beneficial properties, such as supporting the immune system, detoxifying heavy metals, supporting a healthy heart and reducing exercise fatigue due to reduced levels of oxidative stress. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting NAC-Acetylcysteine can help maintain a healthy glycation process.