Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol): 125 mcg
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in some foods and endogenously produced when sunlight strikes the skin and activates vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D promotes the efficient intestinal absorption of calcium, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum by supporting the synthesis of calcium-binding proteins to promote normal calcium absorption and retention. Vitamin D also promotes the normal formation of bone and normal bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Vitamin D deficiency can be caused by factors such as lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced skin synthesis of vitamin D, lower dietary intake, impaired intestinal absorption and reduced metabolism to active forms of vitamin D by the kidneys, all of which increase with aging. Deficiency has been linked to numerous health concerns, and insufficient levels of this vitamin are associated with weak bones and muscle weakness. In addition to promoting strong bones, vitamin D also has other roles in health, including supporting the body’s normal modulation of neuromuscular function and immune function. Vitamin D has been shown to support immune-modulation, and it is thought that supplementation promotes immune health by promoting the body’s normal regulation of T-cell function. In reference to cellular health, vitamin D supports the modulation of many genes that are responsible for encoding proteins that regulate normal cell cycle activity. Vitamin D levels have been strongly correlated to healthy cells. Lastly, through its interaction with VDR (vitamin D receptor), vitamin D supports the healthy expression of the gene encoding renin, thus helping to maintain healthy blood pressure.
Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7): 45 mcg
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin found in meat, eggs, dairy and natto. Although a fat-soluble vitamin, the body stores very little K2, and its stores are rapidly depleted without regular dietary intake. Natural vitamin K2, also known as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), is the most bioavailable form of K2 and has the longest half-life in the blood of any form of vitamin K. The Japanese soy food natto is particularly rich in menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Studies of natto consumption in Japan have linked menaquinone-7 to bone and cardiovascular health. The correlation of vitamin K to cardiovascular and bone health directly focuses on supporting proper calcium utilization, whereby adequate metabolism of calcium supports arterial and bone health. This is often referred to as the calcium paradox. The calcium paradox is explained simply as getting calcium in the right place (i.e., into the bone structures instead of the arterial vessel walls.) These events are dependent upon the synthesis of the vitamin K-dependent proteins osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein in a process called carboxylation. The carboxylation of these proteins is a post-translational step; that is, osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein are translated from their respective messenger RNA and then modified by enzymes to the active forms. These carboxylated forms support the healthy binding and releasing of calcium. This reaction is essential for optimal and healthy utilization of calcium. Vitamin K2 promotes the synthesis of proteins involved with calcium utilization, thereby supporting bone retention and arterial health. While Vitamin D supports the healthy regulation and synthesis of osteocalcin, the mineral-binding capacity of this protein requires vitamin K-dependent carboxylation and is thought to be related to bone mineralization. Gas6 is a vitamin K-dependent protein found throughout the nervous system, as well in the heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys and cartilage. Although the exact mechanism of its action has not been determined, Gas6 appears to be a cellular growth regulator involved in cellular activities such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation and protection against apoptosis.
Potassium (Bicarbonate) 150 mg
Foods rich in potassium include fresh vegetables and fruits, such as bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, avocado, raw spinach, cabbage and celery.
Potassium is an essential macromineral that helps to keep fluid balance. It also plays a role in a wide variety of biochemical and physiological processes. Among other things, it promotes the normal transmission of nerve impulses, the normal contraction of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle, the normal production of energy, the normal synthesis of nucleic acids, the maintenance of intracellular tonicity and the maintenance of normal blood pressure. Potassium promotes muscle relaxation and supports normal insulin release. It also promotes normal glycogen and protein synthesis. Potassium is an electrolyte that promotes proper heartbeat, and it is important in supporting the normal release of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates during metabolism.
Potassium also promotes the normal regulation of water balance. Potassium promotes the normal elimination of wastes and generally contributes to a sense of well-being. Potassium is stored in the muscles.* Some symptoms of potassium deficiency include poor circulation, earaches, inability to sleep, muscle weakness and water retention.
Sodium and potassium are two of the most important ions in helping the body maintain the homeostatic equilibrium of fluids.